Updated code from 1839, borrowing a few ideas from the latest R&A code.
Teeing area expanded to 6-8 clublengths.
First appearance of ice and snow being treated effectively as loose impediments, more than 40 years ahead of the next mention.
The river Tay can be treated as a modern-day lateral water hazard, complete with what appears to be the earliest version of "known or virtually certain"
First direct mention of a 'whiff' counting as a stroke.

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April, 1864

I.  Order of Play.
The game is reckoned by the term "odds" or "one more," and "like;" "two more," and "one off two," &c. After the teed strokes have been struck, the ball farthest from the hole to which the parties are playing must be played first; and should either party strike out of order, the other is entitled to recall the stroke. The player holing in fewest strokes wins the hole, and plays first to the next hole, except in the case of his opponent having gained the match when he leads off.

II.  Place of Teeing.
No ball to be teed nearer the hole than six club lengths, nor farther from it than eight; the turf on no account to be raised for the purpose of teeing the ball.

III.  Against Changing the Ball.
A ball struck from the tee must not be changed till the hole is played out; and if the parties be at a loss to know the one ball from the other, neither ball is to be lifted without mutual consent.

IV.  Lifting Breakclubs, &c.
Stones, bones, or any breakclub, within a club length of the ball, may be lifted or removed on the driving course when the ball lies on grass; but nothing can be removed if it lies in sand, in a bunker, in whins, or on a road. Ice, hail and snow considered liftable without penalty; but nothing fixed or growing can be removed at any time, either on the driving course or putting green. When the ball is in a bunker, in sand, or in a hazard, care must be taken in aiming by the player, that he does not alter or improve the position of his ball; if he does so he loses the hole. When a ball lies within a club-length of a washing-tub, the tub may be removed; and when on clothes, the ball may be lifted and dropped behind them without penalty.

V.  Lying in Holes.
If the ball lie in an old or supernumerary hole made for the purpose of playing golf, it may be lifted, dropped, and played, with an iron only, from behind the hazard, without losing a stroke. In all cases when a ball is to be dropped, the party shall face the hole to which he is playing, and drop the ball behind him over his head

VI.  Ball in Water.
If the ball is in water, and half-covered or more, the player may take it out and tee it; and in all cases where possible, play from behind the hazard, losing a stroke.

VII.   Entitled to See the Ball.
When the ball is covered with fog, bent, whins, mud or the like, so much thereof shall be set aside as that the player shall have a view of his ball before he plays. A ball which is stuck fast in wet ground may be loosened and replaced in the same position without the player losing a stroke.

VIII.   Clearing the Putting Green.
All loose impediments, of whatever kind, may be removed on the putting-green, unless their removal alters the position of the ball. The putting green is considered not to exceed twenty yards from the hole.

IX.   Holing Out.
In holing, no mark of any kind shall be made to direct the player to the hole, nor shall the ground be smoothed or beat. Sand or other loose substances not fixed or growing may be removed, but it must be done lightly, without pressure, or beating down with the feet, club, or otherwise. The ball must be played fairly and honestly for the hole, and not on your adversary’s ball.

X.  Lifting Balls.
When the balls lie within six inches of each other (measuring from outsides) anywhere except on the putting-green, the ball nearest the hole must be lifted, if either party require it. On the putting-green it is optional to the player to have a ball in such circumstances lifted or not. In a three-ball match, the ball nearest the hole within the prescribed distance must be lifted or played out.

XI.  Ball Lost.
If a ball is anywhere lost, the player, or his partner in a foursome, shall return to the place whence the ball was struck, losing one stroke besides the distance. If the original ball is found before the party playing a new one has come opposite to the ground where it was lost, the first one continues the one to be played. Should a ball be driven into the Tay, and thereafter seen by the players or cadies, it is to be considered not lost, though irrecoverable; and another ball must be played within a club length of the river bank, the player or party losing a stroke. If not seen, it is to be held as a lost ball, and another must be played from the spot which the one was struck, one stroke being lost besides the distance.

XII.  Club Breaking or Missed Strokes.
If in striking the player breaks his club, or misses a ball, a stroke shall in either case be counted against him, and if a teed stroke, the ball must be struck by the player, or his partner in a foursome, from the same tee as originally placed on.

XIII.  Rules of the Green.
Whatever happens to a ball by accident, such as striking a third party or the fore cady, must be reckoned a rub of the green, and submitted to. If, however, a player’s ball strike himself, his partner, or their cadies, or clubs, that party loses the hole; or if it strike his opponent, or his cady, or clubs, the opponent loses the hole. Any party striking the adversary’s ball with his club, foot, or otherwise, loses the hole; but if he play it inadvertently, thinking it his own, and the adversary also play the wrong ball, the penalty cannot be exacted, and the hole must be played out with the balls as thus changed. If the mistake occurs from information given to one party by the other, the penalty cannot be claimed; and the mistake, if discovered before the other party shall have played, must be rectified by replacing the ball in the place where it lay. If the player's ball be played away, or lifted, or struck by the ball of a third party, it must be replaced as near as possible to its former position. On Medal days the penalty for players striking cadies, themselves, or partner, &c, as in this Rule No XIII shall be the loss of one stroke.

XIV.  Parties Playing.
Every party shall go in the same direction of the course, and those following shall not play off till the party in advance shall have played their second strokes, and no party is to play when those in advance are on the putting green, till they shall have holed out. Parties playing two balls, as moving more expeditiously, are entitled to pass parties playing three; and those having cadies may pass parties carrying their own clubs.

XV.  Unplayable Balls.
In match playing, every ball must be played wherever it lies, or the hole given up, excepting as in cases provided for in Rule IV on clothes, in Rule V in an old or supernumary golf hole, or as in Rule VI in water. In Medal playing, a ball may, under a penalty of two strokes, be lifted out of a difficulty of any kind and teed behind the hazard; and if in an old or supernumary golf hole, it may be lifted and dropped without penalty.

XVI.  Medal Days.
New holes shall be made on the day on which the Society’s Medals are played for, and no competitor shall play at these holes, previous to the commencement of the competition, under a penalty of being disqualified. All holes must be holed out on Medal days, and no stimies allowed.
The Medal course to consist of two rounds of twelve holes each, and members intending to compete, must give in their names to the Secretary, on or before the day of meeting. They shall then be matched in parties of two, by ballot, and start in order as drawn, each party being accompanied by a marker, for the purpose of recording the strokes as they are struck, on a card prepared for that purpose. In case of ties for Medals, an additional round to be played.

XVII.  Asking Advice.
A player may not ask advice as to the game from any except his own cady, his partner, or his partner’s cady.

XVIII.  Balls Splitting.
If a ball split, either in match or medal play, another may be substituted without penalty.

XIX.  Disputes About the Game.
Any dispute about the game to be settled by the Captain or the Senior Member of Council, present or otherwise by a mutual referee. Mistakes as to the reckoning of any particular hole cannot be rectified by parties after having struck off for the next hole.

XX.  Prevention of Accidents.
To prevent accidents, and to remove the responsibility thereof from Members, it is required that due warning be given to all parties on or in the vicintiy of the golfing course, by the player distinctly and audibly calling "fore," previous to striking his ball.

N.B. - It may not be improper here to mention certain points of etiquette which it is proper should be observed by all who are in the habit of attending matches of golf. It is understood that no looker-on is entitled to make any observation whatever respecting the play, to walk before the players, to remove impediments, or, in short, to interfere in the most distant manner with the game while playing.

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