A recognisable modern idea is relief from what we would now call a hole made by a greenkeeper.
[1802 Edinburgh Burgess]
RULES OF THE GAME OF GOLF
ESTABLISHED BY THE
MONTROSE GOLF CLUB, APRIL 1830
I. The Ball must be teed not nearer the hole than two Club-lengths, nor further from it than four; and the tee must be on the ground.
II. The Ball farthest from the hole, after being struck from the tee, must be first played.
III. The Ball struck from the tee must not be changed before the hole is played out; and if at a loss to distinguish one Ball from another neither of them is to be lifted till both parties agree.
IV. Break-clubs such as stones, bones &c. are not to be removed in order to play a Ball, except on the putting green, and that only within six Club-lengths of the hole.
V. When it is impossible to play the Ball, the player shall be entitled to lift and drop it at such a distance as he thinks proper, behind the hazard and lose one stroke, but where he cannot get behind the hazard, without going off the green, he shall be entitled to drop his Ball on the green, in a line with the place where it lay.
VI. Should a Ball get into any hole on the putting green that comes within the denomination of made-holes it shall not be considered a hazard; but in such case, the player is entitled to lift the Ball and drop it behind the hole, and play without losing a stroke.
VII. If a Ball on the green is half covered with water or filth, the player is at liberty to take it out, drop it behind the hazard, and play with an iron or putter without losing a stroke, and where the Ball is completely covered with fog, furze, or grass, so much thereof may be set aside as that the player shall have a view of his Ball before he plays.
VIII. When two Balls only are playing, the Ball, betwixt the other and the hole on the putting green, is not to be lifted; but when more than two Balls are playing, or when the match is to be decided by the number of strokes, as in playing for medals or prizes, if one Ball lie on the putting green, betwixt another and the hole, the Ball nearest the hole shall be lifted till the other is played.
IX. If a ball be stopped by accident, it shall notwithstanding, be reckoned stroke; but the hole shall be declared lost to the party who may, by himself or his cady, stop or interrupt the Ball of his opponent.
X. If a ball is lost, the player shall drop another behind the place where it was lost and lose one stroke.
XI. Every attempt to strike shall be considered a stroke, whether or not the Club break, touch the ground or pass the Ball.
XII. At putting, the direction of the hole is not to be marked, but the Ball is to played honestly for the hole; - all loose impediments, however, may be removed, if within six Club-lengths of the hole.
XIII. When several parties are playing over the ground, no stroke shall be played from the tee till each of the advanced party has played his second stroke; and should the party following advance on the latter, they must call out before playing their Ball.
XIV. In all cases where a Ball is to be dropped, the party dropping shall front the hole to which he is playing, and drop the Ball over his head.
XV. Parties are at liberty to ask advice for directions from their partners, or cadies, in playing, but not from onlookers, whose observations on the play are not to listened to; and while the one party is prohibited from walking before the other, it is understood, that no spectator shall interfere in the most distant manner with the game while playing.
XVI. Disputes, relative to the reckoning of any hole, must be settled before the parties strike off for the next hole.
XVII. All disputes respecting the play shall be referred to the Captain and his Council, whose determination shall be binding on the parties.