Appendices

2008 * 2012 * 2016


Rules of Golf 2008

Appendix I: Part A

LOCAL RULES

As provided in Rule 33-8, the Committee may make and publish Local Rules for abnormal conditions if they are consistent with the policy established in this Appendix. In addition, detailed information regarding acceptable and prohibited Local Rules is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-8 and in "Guidance on Running a Competition".
If local abnormal conditions interfere with the proper playing of the game and the Committee considers it necessary to modify a Rule of Golf, authorisation from the R&A must be obtained.

1. Defining Bounds and Margins

Specifying means used to define out of bounds, water hazards, lateral water hazards, ground under repair, obstructions and integral parts of the course (Rule 33-2a).

2. Water Hazards

a. Lateral Water Hazards
Clarifying the status of water hazards which may be lateral water hazards (Rule 26)

b. Ball Played Provisionally Under Rule 26-1
Permitting play of a ball provisionally under Rule 26-1 for a ball which may be in a water hazard (including a lateral water hazard) of such character that if the original ball is not found, it is known or virtually certain that it is in the water hazard and it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play.

3. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation: Environmentally-Sensitive Areas

Assisting preservation of the course by defining areas, including turf nurseries, young plantations and other parts of the course under cultivation, as ground under repair from which play is prohibited.
When the Committee is required to prohibit play from environmentally-sensitive areas that are on or adjoin the course, it should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.

4. Course Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions and Protection of Course

a. Lifting an Embedded Ball, Cleaning
Temporary conditions that might interfere with proper playing of the game, including mud and extreme wetness, warranting relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green or permitting lifting, cleaning and replacing a ball anywhere through the green or on a closely-mown area through the green.

b. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Adverse conditions, including the poor condition of the course or the existence of mud, are sometimes so general, particularly during winter months, that the Committee may decide to grant relief by temporary Local Rule either to protect the course or to promote fair and pleasant play. The Local Rule should be withdrawn as soon as conditions warrant.

5. Obstructions

a. General
Clarifying the status of objects that may be obstructions Rule (24).
Declaring any construction to be an integral part of the course and, accordingly, not an obstruction, e.g. built-up sides of teeing grounds, putting greens and bunkers (Rules 24 and 33-2a).

b. Stones in Bunkers
Allowing the removal of stones in bunkers by declaring them to be movable obstructions (Rule 24-1).

c. Roads and Paths
(i) Declaring artificial surfaces and sides of roads and paths to be integral parts of the course, or
(ii) Providing relief of the type afforded under Rule 24-2b from roads and paths not having artificial surfaces and sides if they could unfairly affect play.

d. Immovable Obstructions Close to Putting Green
Providing relief from intervention by immovable obstructions on or within two club-lengths of the putting green when the ball lies within two club-lengths of the immovable obstruction.

e. Protection of Young Trees
Providing relief for the protection of young trees.

f. Temporary Obstructions
Providing relief from interference by temporary obstructions (e.g. grandstands, television cables and equipment, etc).

6. Dropping Zones

Establishing special areas on which balls may or must be dropped when it is not feasible or practicable to proceed exactly in conformity with Rule 24-2b or 24-3 (Immovable Obstruction), Rule 25-1b or Rule 25-1c (Abnormal Ground Conditions), Rule 25-3 (Wrong Putting Green), Rule 26-1 (Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable)


Appendix I: Part B

SPECIMEN LOCAL RULES

Within the policy set out in Part A of this Appendix, the Committee may adopt a Specimen Local Rule by referring, on a score card or notice board, to the examples given below. However, Specimen Local Rules of a temporary nature should not be printed or referred to on a score card.

1. Water Hazards, Ball Played Provisionally Under Rule 26-1

If a water hazard (including a lateral water hazard) is of such size and shape and/or located in such a position that:
(i) it would be impracticable to determine whether the ball is in the hazard or to do so would unduly delay play, and
(ii) if the original ball is not found, it is known or virtually certain that it is the water hazard,
the Committee may introduce a Local Rule permitting the play of a ball provisionally under Rule 26-1. The ball is played provisionally under any of the applicable options under Rule 26-1 or any applicable Local Rule. In such a case if a ball is played provisionally and the original ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the original ball as it lies or continue with the ball played provisionally, but he may not proceed under Rule 26-1 with regard to the original ball.

In these circumstances, the following Local Rule is recommended:

" If there is doubt whether a ball is in or is lost in the water hazard (specify location), the player may play another ball provisionally under any of the applicable options in Rule 26-1.
If the original ball is found outside the water hazard, the player must continue play with it.
If the original ball is found in the water hazard, the player may either play the original ball as it lies or continue with the ball played provisionally under Rule 26-1.
If the original ball is not found or identified within the five-minute search period, the player must continue with the ball played provisionally.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

2. Areas of the Course Requiring Preservation; Environmentally-Sensitive Areas

a. Ground Under Repair: Play Prohibited
If the Committee wishes to protect any area of the course, it should declare it to be ground under repair and prohibit play from within that area.  The following Local Rule is recommended:
"The ______________ (defined by __________) is ground under repair from which play is prohibited. If a player's ball lies in the area, or if it interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing the player must take relief under Rule 25-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Environmentally-Sensitive Areas
If an appropriate authority (i.e. a Government Agency or the like) prohibits entry into and/or play from an area on or adjoining the course for environmental reasons, the Committee should make a Local Rule clarifying the relief procedure.
The Committee has some discretion in terms of whether the area is defined as ground under repair, a water hazard or out of bounds. However, it may not simply define such an area to be a water hazard if it does not meet the Definition of a "Water Hazard" and it should attempt to preserve the character of the hole.

The following Local Rule is recommended:

"I. Definition
An environmentally-sensitive area (ESA) is an area so declared by an appropriate authority, entry into and/or play from which is prohibited for environmental reasons. These areas may be defined as ground under repair, a water hazard, a lateral water hazard or out of bounds at the discretion of the Committee provided that in the case of an ESA that has been defined as a water hazard or a lateral water hazard, the area is, by Definition, a water hazard.
Note: The Committee may not declare an area to be environmentally-sensitive.

II. Ball in Environmentally-Sensitive Area
a. Ground Under Repair

If a ball is in an ESA is defined as ground under repair, a ball must be dropped in accordance with Rule 25-1b.
If it is known or virtually certain that a ball that has not been found is in an ESA defined as ground under repair, the player may take relief, without penalty, as prescribed in Rule 25-1c.

b. Water Hazards and Lateral Water Hazards
If it is known or virtually certain that a ball that has not been found is in an ESA defined as a water hazard or lateral water hazard, the player must, under penalty of one stroke, proceed under Rule 26-1.
Note: If a ball dropped in accordance with Rule 26 rolls into a position where the ESA interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the player must take relief as provided in Clause III of this Local Rule.

c. Out of Bounds
If a ball is in an ESA defined as out of bounds, the player must play a ball, under penalty of one stroke, as nearly as possible at the spot from which the original ball was last played (see Rule 20-5).

III. Interference with Stance or Area of Intended Swing
Interference by an ESA occurs when the ESA interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing. If interference exists, the player must take relief as follows:
(a) Through the Green: If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference by the ESA, and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player must lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point so determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
(b) In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball either:
(i) Without penalty, in the hazard, as near as possible to the spot where the ball lay, but not nearer the hole, on a part of the course that provides complete relief from the ESA; or
(ii) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard, keeping the point where the ball lay directly between the hole and the spot on which the ball is dropped, with no limit to how far behind the hazard the ball may be dropped. Additionally, the player may proceed under Rule 26 or 28 if applicable.
(c) On the Putting Green: If the ball lies on the putting green, the player must lift the ball and place it, without penalty, in the nearest position to where it lay that affords complete relief from the ESA, but not nearer the hole or in a hazard.
The ball may be cleaned when lifted under Clause III of this Local Rule.
Exception: A player may not taker relief under Clause III of this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to make a stroke because of interference by anything other than an ESA or (b) interference by the ESA would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes.

Note: In case of a serious breach of this Local Rule, the Committee may impose a penalty of disqualification. "

3. Protection of Young Trees
When it is desired to prevent damage to young trees, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Protection of young trees identified by ____________________ . If such a tree interferes with a player's stance or the area of his intended swing, the ball must be lifted, without penalty, and dropped in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 24-2b (Immovable Obstruction). If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26. The ball may be cleaned when lifted under this Local Rule.

Exception: A player may not obtain relief under this Local Rule if (a) it is clearly unreasonable for him to make a stroke because of interference by anything other than the tree or (b) interference by the tree would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;   Stroke play - Two strokes."

4. Course Conditions - Mud, Extreme Wetness, Poor Conditions And Protection Of The Course
a. Relief for Embedded Ball; Cleaning Ball

Rule 25-2 provides for relief, without penalty, for a ball embedded in its own pitch-mark in any closely-mown area through the green. On the putting green, a ball may be lifted and damage caused by the impact of a ball may be repaired (Rules 16-1b and c).  When permission to take relief for an embedded ball anywhere through the green would be warranted, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, a ball that is embedded in its own pitch-park in the ground may be lifted, without penalty, cleaned and dropped as near as possible to where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
Exception 1: A player may not take relief under this Local Rule if the ball is embedded in sand in an area that is not closely mown.
Exception 2: A player may not take relief under this Local Rule if it is clearly unreasonable for him to make a stroke because of interference by anything other than the condition covered by this Local Rule.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

b. Cleaning Ball
Conditions, such as extreme wetness causing significant amounts of mud to adhere to the ball, may be such that permission to lift, clean and replace the ball would be appropriate. In these circumstances, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"(Specify area) a ball may be lifted, cleaned and replaced without penalty.
Note: The position of the ball must be marked before it is lifted under this Local Rule - see Rule 20-1.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

c. "Preferred Lies" and "Winter Rules"
Ground under repair is provided for in Rule 25 and occasional local abnormal conditions that might interfere with fair play and are not widespread should be defined as ground under repair.
However, adverse conditions such as heavy snows, spring thaws, prolonged rains or extreme heat can make fairways unsatisfactory and sometimes prevent use of heavy mowing equipment. When such conditions are so general throughout a course that the Committee believes "preferred lies" or "winter rules" would promote fair play or help protect the course, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"A ball lying on a closely-mown area through the green [or specify a more restricted area, e.g. at the 6th hole] may be lifted, without penalty, and cleaned. Before lifting the ball, the player must mark its position. Having lifted the ball, he must place it on a spot within [specify area, e.g. six inches, one club-length, etc.] of and not nearer the hole than where it originally lay that is not in a hazard and not on a putting green.
A player may place his ball only once, and it is in play when it has been placed (Rule 20-4). If the ball fails to come to rest on the spot on which it was placed, Rule 20-3d applies. If the ball when placed comes to rest on the spot on which it was placed and it subsequently moves, there is no penalty and the ball must be played as it lies, unless the provisions of any other Rule apply.
If the player fails to mark the position of the ball before lifting it or moves the ball in any other manner, such as rolling it with a club, he incurs a penalty of one stroke.

Note: "Closely-mown area" means any area of the course, including paths through the rough, cut to fairway height or less.

*PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes

*If a player incurs the general penalty for a breach of this Local Rule, no additional penalty under the Local Rule is applied."

When a course has been aerated, a Local Rule permitting relief, without penalty, from an aeration hole may be warranted. The following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, a ball that comes to rest in or on an aeration hole may be lifted, without penalty, cleaned and dropped, as near as possible to the spot where it lay but not nearer the hole. The ball when dropped must first strike a part of the course through the green.
On the putting green, a ball that comes to rest in or on an aeration hole may be placed at the nearest spot not nearer the hole which avoids the situation.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

e. Seams of Cut Turf
If a Committee wishes to allow relief from seams of cut turf, but not from the cut turf itself, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"Through the green, seams of cut turf (not the turf itself) are deemed to be ground under repair. However, interference by a seam with the player's stance is deemed not to be, of itself, interference under Rule 25-1. If the ball lies in or touches the seam or the seam interferes with the area of intended swing, relief is available under Rule 25-1. All seams within the cut turf area are considered the same seam."

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match Play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two Strokes"

5. Stones in Bunkers
Stones are, by definition, loose impediments and, when a player's ball is in a hazard, a stone lying in or touching the hazard may not be touched or moved (Rule 13-4). However, stones in bunkers may represent a danger to players (a player could be injured by a stone struck by the player's club in an attempt to play the ball) and they may interfere with the proper playing of the game.
When permission to lift a stone in a bunker would be warranted, the following local Rule is recommended:
"Stones in bunkers are movable obstructions (Rule 24-1 applies)."

6. Immovable Obstructions Close to Putting Green
Rule 24-2 provides relief, without penalty, from interference by an immovable obstruction, but it also provides that, except on the putting green, intervention on the line of play is not, of itself, interference under this Rule.
However, on some courses, the aprons of the putting greens are so closely mown that players may wish to putt from just off the green. In such conditions, immovable obstructions on the apron may interfere with the proper playing of the game and the introduction of the following Local Rule providing additional relief, without penalty, from intervention by an immovable obstruction would be warranted:
"Relief from interference by an immovable obstruction may be obtained under Rule 24-2. In addition, if a ball lies off the putting green but not in a hazard and an obstruction on or within two club-lengths of the putting green and within two club-lengths of the ball intervenes on the line of play between the ball and the hole, the player may take relief as follows:
The ball must be lifted and dropped at the nearest point to where the ball lay that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids intervention and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The ball may be cleaned when lifted.

Relief under this Local Rule is also available if the player's ball lies on the putting green and an immovable obstruction within two club-lengths of the putting green intervenes on his line of putt. The player may take relief as follows:
The ball must be lifted and placed at the nearest point to where the ball lay that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids intervention and (c) is not in a hazard. The ball may be cleaned when lifted.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of Hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes."

7. Temporary Obstructions
When temporary obstructions are installed on or adjoining the course, the Committee should define the status of such obstructions as movable, immovable or temporary immovable obstructions.
a. Temporary Immovable Obstructions
If the Committee defines such obstructions as temporary immovable obstructions, the following local Rule is recommended:

"I. Definition
A temporary immovable obstruction (TIO) is a non-permanent artificial object that is often erected in conjunction with a competition and is fixed or not readily movable.
Examples of TIOs include, but are not limited to, tents, scoreboards, grandstands, television towers and lavatories.
Supporting guy wires are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.

II. Interference
Interference by a TIO occurs when (a) the ball lies in front of and so close to the TIO that the TIO interferes with the player's stance or the area of his intended swing, or (b) the ball lies in, on, under or behind the TIO so that any part of the TIO intervenes directly between the player's ball and the hole and is on his line of play; interference also exists if the ball lies within one club-length of a spot equidistant from the hole where such intervention would exist.

Note: A ball is under a TIO when it is below the outer most edges of the obstruction, even if these edges do not extend downwards to the ground.

III. Relief
A player may obtain relief from interference by a TIO, including a TIO which is out of bounds, as follows:
a. Through the Green: If the ball lies through the green, the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined which (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause II and (c) is not in a hazard or on a putting green. The player must lift the ball and drop it without penalty within one club-length of the point so determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
b. In a Hazard: If the ball is in a hazard, the player must lift and drop the ball either:
(i) Without penalty, in accordance with Clause IIIa above, except that the nearest part of the course affording complete relief must be in the hazard and the ball must be dropped in the hazard or, if complete relief is impossible, on a part of the course within the hazard that affords maximum availbale relief; or
(ii) Under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard as follows: the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies must be determined that (a) is not nearer the hole, (b) avoids interference as defined in Clause II and (c) is not in a hazard. The player must drop the ball within one club-length of the point so determined on a part of the course which fulfils (a), (b) and (c) above.
The ball may be cleaned when lifted under Clause III.

Note 1: If the ball lies in a hazard, nothing in this Local Rule precludes the player from proceeding under Rule 26 or Rule 28, if applicable.
Note 2: If a ball to be dropped under this Local Rule is not immediately recoverable, another ball may be substituted.
Note 3: A Committee may make a Local Rule (a) permitting or requiring a player to use a dropping zone or ball drop when taking relief from a TIO or (b) permitting a player, as an additional relief option, to drop the ball on the opposite side of the TIO from the point established under Clause III, but otherwise in accordance with Clause III.

Exceptions:
If a player's ball lies in front of or behind the TIO (not in, on or under the obstruction) he may not obtain relief under Clause III if:
1. It is clearly unreasonable for him to make a stroke or, in the case of intervention, to make a stroke such that the ball could finish on a direct line to the hole, because of interference by anything other than the TIO;
2. Interference by the TIO would occur only through use of an unnecessarily abnormal stance, swing or direction of play; or
3. In the case of intervention, it would be clearly unreasonable to expect the player to be able to strike the ball far enough towards the hole to reach the TIO.
Note: A player not entitled to relief due to these exceptions may proceed under Rule 24-2 if applicable.

IV. Ball in TIO Not Found
If it is known or virtually certain that the ball that has not been found is in, on or under a TIO, a ball may be dropped under the provisions of Clause III or Clause V, if applicable. For the purpose of applying Clauses III and V, the ball is deemed to lie at the spot where it last crossed the outermost limits of the TIO (Rule 24-3).

V. Dropping Zones
If the player has interference from a TIO, the Committee may permit or require the use of a dropping zone. If the player uses a dropping zone in taking relief, he must drop the ball in the dropping zone nearest to where his ball originally lay or is deemed to lie under Clause IV (even though the nearest dropping zone may be nearer the hole).
Note: A Committee may make a Local Rule prohibiting the use of a dropping zone that is nearer the hole.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes."

b. Temporary Power Lines and Cables
When temporary power lines, cables, or telephone lines are installed on the course, the following Local Rule is recommended:
" Temporary power lines, cables, telephone lines and mats covering or stanchions supporting them are obstructions:
1. If they are readily movable, Rule 24-1 applies.
2. If they are fixed or not readily movable, the player may, if the ball lies through the green or in a bunker, obtain relief as provided in Rule 24-2b. If the ball lies in a water hazard, the player may lift and drop the ball in accordance with Rule 24-2b(i) except that the nearest point of relief must be in the water hazard and the ball must be dropped in the water hazard or the player may proceed under Rule 26.
3. If a ball strikes an elevated power line or cable, the stroke must be cancelled and replayed, without penalty (see Rule 20-5). If the ball is not immediately recoverable another ball may be substituted.
Note: Guy wires supporting a temporary immovable obstruction are part of the temporary immovable obstruction unless the Committee, by Local Rule, declares that they are to be treated as elevated power lines or cables.
Exception: A stroke that results in a ball striking an elevated junction section of cable rising from the ground must not be replayed.
4. Grass-covered cable trenches are ground under repair even if not marked and Rule 25-1b applies."

8. Dropping Zones

If the Committee considers that it is not feasible or practicable to proceed in accordance with a Rule providing relief, it may establish dropping zones in which balls may or must be dropped when taking relief. Generally, such dropping zones should be provided as an additional relief option to those available under the Rule itself, rather than being mandatory.
Using the example of a dropping zone for a water hazard, when such a dropping zone is established, the following Local Rule is recommended:
"If a ball is in or it is known or virtually certain that a ball that has not been found is in the water hazard [specify location], the player may:
(i) proceed under Rule 26; or
as an additional option, drop a ball, under penalty of one stroke, in the dropping zone.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF LOCAL RULE:
Match play - Loss of hole;  Stroke play - Two strokes."

Note: When using a dropping zone, the following provisions apply regarding the dropping and re-dropping of the ball:
(a) The player does not have to stand within the dropping zone when dropping the ball.
(b) The dropped ball must first strike a part of the course within the dropping zone.
(c) If the dropping zone is defined by a line, the line is within the dropping zone.
(d) The dropped ball does not have to come to rest in the dropping zone.
(e) The dropped ball must be re-dropped if it rolls and comes to rest in a position covered by Ruule 20-2c(i-vi)
(f) The dropped ball may roll nearer the hole than the spot where it first struck a part of the course, provided it comes to rest within two club-lengths of that spot and not into any of the positions covered by (e)
(g) Subject to the provisions of (e) and (f), the dropped ball may roll and come to rest nearer the hole than:
• its original position or estimated position (ee Rule 20-2b);
• the nearest point of relief or maximum available relief (Rule 24-2, 24-3, 25-1 or 25-3) or;
• the point where the original ball last crossed the margin of the water hazard or lateral water hazard (Rule 26-1)

9. Distance-Measuring Devices

If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the note under Rule 14-3, the following wording is recommended:
"[Specify as appropriate, e.g. In this competition, of For all play at this course, etc], a player may obtain distance information by using a device that measures distance only. If, during a stipulated round, a player uses a distance-measuring device that is designed to gauge or measure other conditions that might affect his play (e.g. gradient, wind speed, temperature, etc), the player is in breach of Rule 14-3, for which the penalty is disqualification, regardless of whether any such additional function is actually used."


PART C: CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION

Rule 33-1 provides, "The Committee must lay down the conditions under which a competition is to be played." The conditions should include many matters such as method of entry, eligibility, number of rounds to be played, etc. which it is not appropriate to deal with in the Rules of Golf or this Appendix. Detailed information regarding such conditions is provided in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf" under Rule 33-1 and in "Guidance on Running a Competition".
However, there are a number of matters that might be covered in the Conditions of the Competition to which the Committee's attention is specifically drawn. These are:

1. Specification of the Ball (Note to Rule 5-1)
The following conditions are recommended only for competitions involving expert players:
a. List of Conforming Drive Heads
On its web site (www.randa.org) the R&A periodically issues a List of Conforming Driver Heads which lists driving clubheads that have been evaluated and found to conform with the Rules of Golf. If the Committee wishes to limit players to drivers that have a clubhead, identified by model and loft, that is on the List, the List should be made available and the following condition of competition used:

"Any driver the player carries must have a clubhead, identified by model and loft, that is named on the current List of Conforming Driver Heads issued by the R&A.
Exception: A driver with a clubhead that was manufactured prior to 1999 is exempt from this condition.

*PENALTY FOR CARRYING, BUT NOT MAKING STROKE WITH, CLUB OR CLUBS IN BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round - Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round - Four strokes.
Match or Stroke Play - In the event of a breach between the play of two strokes, the penalty applies to the next hole.
Bogey and Par competitions - See Note 1 to Rule 32-1a
Stableford Competitions - See Note 1 to Rule 32-1b

* Any club or clubs carried in breach of this condition must be declared out of play by the player to his opponent in match play or his marker or fellow competitor in stroke play immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred. If the player fails to do so he is disqualified.

PENALTY FOR MAKING STROKE WITH CLUB IN BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."

b. List of Conforming Golf Balls
On its web site (www.randa.org) the R&A periodically issues a List of Conforming Golf Balls which lists balls that have been tested and found to conform with the Rules of Golf. If the Committee wishes to require players to play a model of golf ball on the List, the List should be made available and the following condition of competition used:

"The ball the player plays must be named on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls issued by the R&A.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Disqualification."

c. One Ball Condition
If it is desired to prohibit changing brands and models of golf balls during a stipulated round, the following condition is recommended:

"Limitation on Balls Used During Round: (Note to Rule 5-1)

(i) 'One Ball' Condition
During a stipulated round, the balls a player plays must be of the same brand and model as detailed by a single entry on the current List of Conforming Golf Balls.

Note: If a ball of a different brand and/or model is dropped or placed it may be lifted, without penalty, and the player must then proceed by dropping or placing a proper ball (Rule 20-6).

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round - Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round - Four strokes.

(ii) Procedure When Breach Discovered
When a player discovers that he has played a ball in breach of this condition, he must abandon that ball before playing from the next teeing ground and complete the round with a proper ball; otherwise, the player is disqualified. If discovery is made during play of a hole and the player elects to substitute a proper ball before completing that hole, the player must place a proper ball on the spot where the ball played in breach of the condition lay."

2. Time of Starting (Note to Rule 6-3a)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note, the following wording is recommended:

"If the player arrives at his starting point, ready to play, within five minutes after his starting time, in the absence of circumstances which warrant waiving the penalty of disqualification as provided in Rule 33-7, the penalty for failure to start on time is loss of the first hole to be played in match play or two strokes in stroke play. Penalty for lateness beyond five minutes is disqualification."

3. Caddie (Note to Rule 6-4)
Rule 6-4 permits a player to use a caddie provided he has only one caddie at any one time. However, there may be circumstances where a Committee may wish to prohibit caddies or restrict a player in his choice of caddie, e.g. professional golfer, sibling, parent, another player in the competition, etc. In such cases, the following wording is recommended:
Use of Caddie Prohibited
"A player is prohibited from using a caddie during the stipulated round."

Restriction on Who May Serve as Caddie
"A player is prohibited from having ________ serve as his caddie during the stipulated round.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match must be adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round - Two holes.
Stroke Play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round - Four strokes.

Match or stroke play - In the event of a breach between the play of two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole. A player having a caddie in breach of this condition must immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred ensure that he conforms with this condition for the remainder of the stipulated round. Otherwise, the player is disqualified."

4. Pace of Play (Note to Rule 6-7)
The Committee may establish pace of play guidelines to help prevent slow play, in accordance with Note 2 to Rule 6-7.

5. Suspension of Play Due to a Dangerous Situation (Note to Rule 6-8b)
As there have been many deaths and injuries from lightning on golf courses, all clubs and sponsors of golf competitions are urged to take precautions for the protection of persons against lightning. Attention is called to Rules 6-8 and 33-2d. If the Committee desires to adopt the condition in the Note under Rule 6-8b, the following wording is recommended:

"When play is suspended by the Committee for a dangerous situation, if the players in a match or group are between the play of two holes, they must not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If they are in the process of playing a hole, they must discontinue play immediately and not resume play until the Committee has ordered a resumption of play. If a player fails to discontinue play immediately, he is disqualified unless circumstances warrant waiving the penalty as provided in Rule 33-7.
The signal for suspending play due to a dangerous situation will be a prolonged note of the siren."

The following signals are generally used and it is recommended that all Committees do similarly:
Discontinue Play Immediately: One prolonged note of siren.
Discontinue Play: Three consecutive notes of siren, repeated.
Resume Play: Two short notes of siren, repeated.

6. Practice

a. General
The Committee may make regulations governing practice in accordance with the Note to Rule 7-1, Exception (c) to Rule 7-2, Note 2 to Rule 7 and Rule 33-2c.

b. Practice Between Holes (Note 2 to Rule 7)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with Note 2 to Rule 7-2, the following wording is recommended:

"Between the play of two holes, player must not make any practice stroke on or near the putting green of the hole last played and must not test the surface of the putting green of the hole last played by rolling a ball.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match Play - Loss of next hole.
Stroke play - Two strokes at next hole.
Match or Stroke Play - In the case of a breach at the last hole of the stipulated round, the player incurs the penalty at that hole."

7. Advice in Team Competitions (Note to Rule 8)
If the Committee wishes to act in accordance with the Note under Rule 8, the following wording is recommended:

"In accordance with the Note to Rule 8 of the Rules of Golf, each team may appoint one person (in addition to the persons from whom advice may be asked under that Rule) who may give advice to members of that team. Such person (if it desired to insert any restriction on who may be nominated insert such restriction here) must be identified to the Committee before giving advice."

8. New Holes (Note to Rule 33-2b)
The Committee may provide, in accordance with the Note to Rule 33-2b, that the holes and teeing grounds for a single round competition being held on more than one day may be differently situated on each day.

9. Transportation
If it is desired to require players to walk in a competition, the following condition is recommended:

"Players must not ride on any form of transportation during a stipulated round unless authorised by the Committee.

PENALTY FOR BREACH OF CONDITION:
Match play - At the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered, the state of the match is adjusted by deducting one hole for each hole at which a breach occurred; maximum deduction per round - Two holes.
Stroke play - Two strokes for each hole at which any breach occurred; maximum penalty per round - Four strokes.
Match or stroke play - In the event of a breach between the play of two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole. Use of any unauthorized form of transportation must be discontinued immediately upon discovery that a breach has occurred. Otherwise, the player is disqualified."

10. Anti-Doping
The Committee may require, in the Conditions of Competition, that players comply with an anti-doping policy.

11. How to Decide Ties
In both match play and stroke play, a tie can be an acceptable result. However, when it is desired to have a sole winner, the Committee has the authority, under Rule 33-6, to determine how and when a tie is decided. The decision should be published in advance.

The R&A recommends:

Match Play
A match that ends all square should be played off hole by hole until one side wins a hole. The play-off should start on the hole where the match began. In a handicap match, handicap strokes should be allowed as in the stipulated round.
Stroke Play
(a) In the event of a tie in a scratch stroke play competition, a play-off is recommended. The play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. If that is not feasible or there is still a tie, a hole-by-hole play-off is recommended.

(b) In the event of a tie in a handicap stroke play competition, a play-off with handicaps is recommended. The play-off may be over 18 holes or a smaller number of holes as specified by the Committee. It is recommended that any such play-off consists of at least three holes.

In competitions where the handicap stroke allocation table is not relevant, if the play-off is less than 18 holes the percentage of 18 holes to be played should be applied to the players’ handicaps to determine their play-off handicaps. Handicap stroke fractions of one-half stroke or more should count as a full stroke and any lesser fraction should be disregarded.
In competitions where the handicap stroke table is relevant, such as four-ball stroke play and bogey, par and Stableford Competitions, handicap strokes should be taken as they were assigned for the competition using the players’ respective stroke allocation table(s).

(c) If a play-off of any type is not feasible, matching score cards is recommended. The method of matching cards should be announced in advance and should also provide what will happen if this procedure does not produce a winner. An acceptable method of matching cards is to determine the winner on the basis of the best score for the last nine holes. If the tying players have the same score for the last nine, determine the winner on the basis of the last six holes, last three holes and finally the 18th hole. If this method is used in a competition with a multiple tee start, it is recommended that the "last nine holes, last six holes, etc." is considered to be holes 10-18, 13-18, etc.
For competitions where the handicap stroke table is not relevant, such as individual stroke play, if the last nine, last six, last three holes scenario is used, one half, one third, one sixth, etc. of the handicaps should be deducted from the score for those holes. In terms of the use of fractions in such deductions, the Committee should act in accordance with the recommendations of the relevant handicapping authority.
In competitions where the handicap stroke table is relevant, such as four-ball stroke play and bogey, par and Stableford Competitions, handicap strokes should be taken as they were assigned for the competition using the players’ respective stroke allocation table(s).

12. Draw for Match Play
Although the draw for match play may be completely blind or certain players may be distributed through different quarters or eighths, the General Numerical Draw is recommended if matches are determined by a qualifying round.

General Numerical Draw
For purposes of determining places in the draw, ties in qualifying rounds other than those for the last qualifying place are decided by the order in which scores are returned, with the first score to be returned receiving the lowest available number, etc. If it is impossible to determine the order in which scores are returned, ties are determined by a blind draw.

upper half
lower half
upper half
lower half
64 Qualifiers
32 Qualifiers
1 vs. 64
2 vs. 63
1 vs. 32
2 vs. 31
32 vs. 33
31 vs. 34
16 vs. 17
15 vs. 18
16 vs. 49
15 vs. 50
8 vs. 25
7 vs. 26
17 vs. 48
18 vs. 47
9 vs. 24
10 vs. 23
8 vs. 57
7 vs. 58
4 vs. 29
3 vs. 30
25 vs. 40
26 vs. 39
13 vs. 20
14 vs. 19
9 vs. 56
10 vs. 55
5 vs. 28
6 vs. 27
24 vs. 41
23 vs. 42
12 vs. 21
11 vs. 22
4 vs. 61
3 vs. 62
16 Qualifiers
29 vs. 36
30 vs. 35
1 vs. 16
2 vs.15
13 vs. 52
14 vs. 51
8 vs. 19
7 vs.10
20 vs. 45
19 vs. 46
4 vs. 13
3 vs.14
5 vs. 60
6 vs. 59
5 vs. 12
6 vs. 11
28 vs. 37
27 vs. 38
8 Qualifiers
12 vs. 53
11 vs. 54
1 vs. 8
2 vs. 7
21 vs. 44
22 vs. 43
4 vs. 5
3 vs. 6

Appendices II and III

The R&A reserves the right, at any time, to change the Rules relating to clubs and balls and make or change the interpretations relating to these Rules. For up to date information, please contact the R&A or refer to www.randa.org/equipmentrules.
Any design in a club or ball which is not covered by the Rules, which is contrary to the purpose and intent of the Rules or which might significantly change the nature of the game, will be ruled on by the R&A.
The dimensions and limits contained in Appendices II and III are given in the units by which conformance is dtermined. An equivalent imperial/metric conversion is also referenced for information, calculated using a conversion rate of 1 inch = 25.4mm.

APPENDIX II - DESIGN OF CLUBS

A player in doubt as to the conformity of a club should consult the R&A.
A manufacturer should submit to the R&A a sample of a club to be manufactured for a ruling as to whether the club conforms with the Rules. The sample becomes the property of the R&A for reference purposes. If a manufacturer fails to submit a sample or having submitted a sample, fails to await a ruling before manufacturing and/or marketing the club, the manufacturer assumes the risk of a ruling that the club does not conform with the Rules.
The following paragraphs prescribe general regulations for the design of clubs, together with specifications and interpretations. Further information relating to these regulations and their proper interpretation is provided in "A Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls."
Where a club, or part of a club, is required to meet a specification within the Rules, it must be designed and manufactured with the intention of meeting that specification.

1. Clubs

a. General
A club is an implement designed to be used for striking the ball and generally comes in three forms: woods, irons and putters distinguished by shape and intended use. A putter is a club with a loft not exceeding ten degrees designed primarily for use on the putting green.
The club must not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make. The club must be composed of a shaft and a head and it may also have material added to the shaft to enable the player to obtain a firm hold (see 3 below). All parts of the club must be fixed so that the club is one unit, and it must have no external attachments. Exceptions may be made for attachments that do not affect the performance of the club.

b. Adjustability
All clubs may incorporate mechanisms for weight adjustment. Other forms of adjustability may also be permitted upon evaluation by the R&A. The following requirements apply to all permissible methods of adjustment:
(i) the adjustment cannot be readily made;
(ii) all adjustable parts are firmly fixed and there is no reasonable likelihood of them working loose during a round; and
(iii) all configurations of adjustment conform with the Rules.

During a stipulated round, the playing characteristics of a club must not be purposely changed by adjustment or by any other means (see Rule 4-2a).

images/club02.gif
Figure I

c. Length
The overall length of the club must be at least 18 inches (457.2mm) and, except for putters, must not exceed 48 inches (1219.2 mm). For woods and irons, the measurement of length is taken when the club is lying on a horizontal plane and the sole is set against a 60 degree plane as shown in Fig. I. The length is defined as the distance from the point of the intersection between the two planes to the top of the grip. For putters, the measurement of length is taken from the top of the grip along the axis of the shaft or a straight line extension of it to the sole of the club.

d. Alignment
When the club is in its normal address position the shaft must be so aligned that:
(i) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane through the toe and heel must diverge from the vertical by at least ten degrees (See Figure II). If the overall design of the club is such that the player can effectively use the club in a vertical or close-to-vertical position, the shaft may be required to diverge from the vertical in this plane by as much as 25 degrees;
images/club02.gif
Figure II
images/club03.gif
Figure III
(ii) the projection of the straight part of the shaft on to the vertical plane along the intended line of play must not diverge from the vertical by more than 20 degrees forwards or 10 degrees backwards (See Figure III).
Except for putters, all of the heel portion of the club must lie within 0.625 inches (15.88mm) of the plane containing the axis of the straight part of the shaft and the intended (horizontal) line of play (See Figure IV).
images/club04.gif
Figure IV

2. Shaft
a. Straightness
The shaft must be straight from the top of the grip to a point not more than 5 inches (127mm) above the sole, measured from the point where the shaft ceases to be straight along the axis of the bent part of the shaft and the neck and/or socket (see Fig V).
images/club01.gif
Figure V
b. Bending and Twisting Properties.
At any point along its length, the shaft must:
(i) bend in such a way that the deflection is the same regardless of how the shaft is rotated about its longitudinal axis; and
(ii) twist the same amount in both directions.
c. Attachment to Clubhead.
The shaft must be attached to the clubhead at the heel either directly or through a single plain neck and/or socket. The length from the top of the neck and/or socket to the sole of the club must not exceed 5 inches (127mm), measured along the axis of, and following any bend in, the neck and/or socket (See Figure VI).

Exception for Putters: The shaft or neck or socket of a putter may be fixed at any point in the head.

images/club05.gif
Figure VI

3. Grip (See Figure VII)

The grip consists of material added to the shaft to enable the player to obtain a firm hold. The grip must be straight and plain in form, must extend to the end of the shaft and must not be moulded for any part of the hands. If no material is added, that portion of the shaft designed to be held by the player must be considered the grip.
images/club06.gif
Figure VII
(i) For clubs other than putters the grip must be circular in cross-section, except that a continuous, straight, slightly raised rib may be incorporated along the full length of the grip, and a slightly indented spiral is permitted on a wrapped grip or a replica of one.
(ii) A putter grip may have a non-circular cross-section, provided the cross-section has no concavity, is symmetrical and remains generally similar throughout the length of the grip. (See clause (v)).
(iii) The grip may be tapered but must not have any bulge or waist. Its cross-sectional dimension measured in any direction must not exceed 1.75 inches (44.45mm).
(iv) For clubs other than putters the axis of the grip must coincide with the axis of the shaft.
(v) A putter may have two grips, provided each is circular in cross-section, the axis of each coincides with the axis of the shaft, and they are separated by at least 1.5 inches (38.1mm).

4. Clubhead

a. Plain in Shape
The clubhead must be generally plain in shape. All parts must be rigid, structural in nature and functional. The clubhead or its parts must not be designed to resemble any other object. It is not practicable to define plain in shape precisely and comprehensively. However, features that are deemed to be in breach of this requirement and are therefore not permitted include, but are not limited to:

(i) All Clubs
• holes thorugh the face;
• holes through the head (some exceptions may be made for putters and cavity back irons;
• features that are for the purpose of meeting dimensional specifications;
• features that extend into or ahead of the face;
• features that extend significantly above the top line of the head;
• furrows in or runners on the head that extend into the face (some exceptions may be made for putters); and
• optical or electronic devices.

(ii) Woods and Irons
• all features listed in (i) above;
• cavities in the outline of the heel and/or the toe of the head that can be viewed from above;
• severe or multiple cavitites in the outline of the back of the head that can be viewed from above;
• transparent material added to the head with the intention of rendering conforming a feature that is not otherwise permitted; and
• features that extend beyond the outline of the head when viewed from above.

b. Dimensions and Size.
(i) Woods

When the club is in a 60 degree lie angle, the dimensions of the clubhead must be such that:
• the distance from the heel to the toe of the clubhead is greater than the distance from the face to the back;
• the distance from the heel to the toe of the clubhead is not greater than 5 inches (127 mm); and
• the distance from the sole to the crown of the clubhead is not greater than 2.8 inches (71.12 mm).

These dimensions are measured on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of:
• the heel and the toe; and
• the face and the back (see Fig VIII, dimension A)
and on vertical lines between the horizontal projections of the outermost points of the sole and the crown (see Fig VIII, dimension B). If the outermost point of the heel is not clearly defined, it is deemed to be 0.875 inches (22.23 mm) above the horizontal plane on which the club is lying (see Fig. VIII, dimension C).
The volume of the clubhead must not exceed 460 cubic centimetres (28.06 cubic inches), plus a tolerance of 10 cubic centimetres (0.61 cubic inches).
When the club is in a 60 degree lie angle, the moment of interia component around the vertical axis through the clubhead's centre of gravity must not exceed 5900 g cm² (32.259 oz in²), plus a test tolerance of 100 g cm² (0.547 oz in²).

images/club008.gif
Figure VIII

(ii) Irons
When the clubhead is in its normal address position, the dimensions of the head must be such that the distance from the heel to the toe is greater than the distance from the face to the back.

(iii) Putters (see Fig IX)
When the clubhead is in its normal address position, the dimensions of the head must be such that:
• the distance from the heel to the toe is greater than the distance from the face to the back;
• the distance from the heel to the toe of the head is less than or equal to 7 inches (177.8mm);
• the distance from the heel to the toe of the face is greater than or equal to two thirds of the distance from the face to the back of the head;
• the distance from the heel to the toe of the face is greater than or equal to half of the distance from the heel to the toe of the head; and
• the distance from the sole to the top of the head, including any permitted features, is less than or equal to 2.5 inches (63.5mm)

For traditionally shaped heads, these dimensions will be measured on horizontal lines between vertical projections of the outermost points of:
• the heel and the toe of the head;
• the heel and the toe of the face; and
• the face and the back;

and on vertical lines between the horizontal projections of the outermost points of the sole and the top of the head.

For unusually shaped heads, the toe to heel dimension may be made at the face.

images/club009.gif
Figure IX

c. Spring Effect and Dynamic Properties
The design, material and/or construction of, or any treatment to, the clubhead (which includes the club face) must not:
(i) have the effect of a spring which exceeds the limit set forth in the Pendulum Test protocol on file with the R&A; or
(ii) incorporate features or technology including, but not limited to, separate springs or spring features, that have the intent of, or the effect of, unduly influencing the clubhead's spring effect; or
(iii) unduly influence the movement of the ball.

Note: (i) above does not apply to putters.

d. Striking Faces
The clubhead must have only one striking face, except that a putter may have two such faces if their characteristics are the same, and they are opposite each other.

5. Club Face

a General.
The face of the club must be hard and rigid and must not impart significantly more or less spin to the ball than a standard steel face (some exceptions may be made for putters). Except for such markings listed below, the club face must be smooth and must not have any degree of concavity.

images/club08.gif
Figure X
b. Impact Area Roughness and Material.
Except for markings specified in the following paragraphs, the surface roughness within the area where impact is intended (the "impact area") must not exceed that of decorative sandblasting, or of fine milling (see Figure X).
The whole of the impact area must be of the same material (exceptions may be made for clubheads made of wood).

c. Impact Area Markings.
If a club has grooves and/or punch marks in the impact area they must be designed and manufactured to meet the following specifications:

(i) Grooves.
• Grooves must not have sharp edges or raised lips (test on file).
• Grooves must be straight and parallel.
• Grooves must have a symmetrical cross-section and have sides which do not converge (see Fig XI)

images/club09.gif
Figure XI

• the width, spacing and cross-section of the grooves must be consistent throughout the impact area.
• any rounding of groove edges must be in the form of a radius which does not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm).
• the width of each groove must not exceed 0.035 inches (0.9mm), using the 30 degree method of measurement on file with the R&A.
• the distance between edges of adjacent grooves must not be less than three times the width of the grooves, and not less than 0.075 inches (1.905mm).
• the depth of each groove must not exceed 0.020 inches (0.508mm).

(ii) Punch Marks.
• The area of any punch mark must not exceed 0.0044 square inches (2.84 sq.mm).
• The distance between adjacent punch marks (or between punch marks and grooves) must not be less than 0.168 inches (4.27mm), measured from centre to centre.
• The depth of a punch mark must not exceed 0.040 inches (1.02mm).
• Punch marks must not have sharp edges or raised lips (test on file). d. Decorative Markings.
The centre of the impact area may be indicated by a design within the boundary of a square whose sides are 0.375 inches (9.53mm) in length. Such a design must not unduly influence the movement of the ball. Decorative markings are permitted outside the impact area.

e. Non-metallic Club Face Markings.
The above specifications apply to clubheads made of wood on which the impact area of the face is of a material of hardness less than the hardness of metal and whose loft angle is 24 degrees or less, but markings which could unduly influence the movement of the ball are prohibited.

f. Putter Face Markings.
Any markings on the face of a putter must not have sharp edges or raised lips. The specifications with regard to roughness, material and markings in the impact area do not apply.


Appendix III

THE BALL

1. General
The ball must not be substantially different from the traditional and customary form and make. The material and construction of the ball must not be contrary to the purpose and intent of the Rules.

2. Weight
The weight of the ball must not be greater than 1.620 ounces avoirdupois (45.93gm).

3. Size
The diameter of the ball must be not less than 1.680 inches (42.67mm). This specification will be satisfied if, under its own weight, a ball falls through a 1.680 inches diameter ring gauge in fewer than 25 out of 100 randomly selected positions, the test being carried out at a temperature of 23 1C.

4. Spherical Symmetry
The ball must not be designed, manufactured or intentionally modified to have properties which differ from those of a spherically symmetrical ball.

5. Initial Velocity
The velocity of the ball must not exceed the limit specified (test on file) when measured on apparatus approved by the R&A.

6. Overall Distance Standard
The combined carry and roll of the ball, when tested on apparatus approved by the R&A, must not exceed the distance specified under the conditions set forth in the Overall Distance Standard for golf balls on file with the R&A.

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Rules of Golf 2012

Appendix I: Part A

LOCAL RULES; CONDITIONS OF THE COMPETITION


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